The seven essays in this book examine the desires and impulses that drive digital culture, focusing on the shift from commons to NFTs, from new forms of sharing to the expansion of private ownership and tradable commodities. They reveal just how much our culture has been transformed in the last 20 years, but also unearth surprising continuities between the commons and some of the truly experimental uses of blockchains.

Written by artists, researchers, curators and technologists from Europe, North America and East Asia, these essays bring much-needed first-hand experience and long-term perspective to the discussion.


From Commons to NFTs
Contributors: Felix Stalder, Yukiko Shikata, Michelle Kasprzak, Denis “Jaromil” Roio, Cornelia Sollfrank, Jaya Klara Brekke, Lee Tzu-Tung

Editors: Felix Stalder, Janez Fakin Janša
Editorial assistant: Rok Kranjc
Language editors: Miha Šuštar, Cherise Fong
Japanese language consultant: Iztok Ilc
Design and layout: Federico Antonini, Alessio D’Ellena (

Print: Collegium Graphicum
No. of copies: 300

Format: 10.5 x 16.7 cm
Pages: 120
Language: EN
Year: 2022
ISBN: 978-961-7173-17-8

Published by: Aksioma – Institute for Contemporary Art, Ljubljana
Represented by: Marcela Okretič
Ljubljana, October 2022

Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0

Promotion and distribution: Sonja Grdina

Supported by: the Ministry of Culture of the Republic of Slovenia and the Municipality of Ljubljana

Originally published in the online magazine between January and July 2022 in both English and French for the essay series From Commons to NFTs initiated by Shu Lea Cheang, Felix Stalder and Ewen Chardronnet. Makery is a project by ART2M, directed by Anne-Cécile Worms.